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eXtreme Gammon 2 Activation Key: How to Generate and Enter it into the Program

the question of the minimum frequency of extreme events is addressed in [ 6 ] (see section 11.5.2 ). in this context, the challenge posed by the fast attribution issue is similar to, but more severe than, the question of quantifying the cumulative frequency of extreme events. for example, a climate researcher may be able to describe what the normal rate of occurrence for the number of thunderstorm hailstorms per year across a certain time period was in the past, and also how this has changed in the past decade. however, the rate of change in this number cannot be directly estimated because, by definition, there is already a large number of extreme events so that observation of the change in a new extreme is rare, though perhaps not infrequent. this is like a hockey player not being able to say how many more goals he scored in the last game because he would never have scored any goals in the first place. the same challenge arises in the evaluation of the number of extreme precipitation events, as described in [ 11, 12 ] and [ 13 ], where a simple numerical calculation of the mean or median of a given time series is not always possible. the challenge is tangled with the question of the minimum frequency of extreme events.


the goal of the nca4 chapter 2 team was to produce a chapter that was comprehensive and authoritative and, at the same time, concise. as noted above, the topic is not well-covered by the vast literature that has accumulated about climate change and extremes, and consequently the topic has not been explored in other nca4 chapters. in the end, the team wanted to answer all questions of relevance to the topics discussed in the chapter, including both the science and its societal impacts. this meant that the chapter was written for a scientific audience, and it is a bit longer than the typical nca4 chapter. our aim was to provide an even-handed evaluation of the current state of knowledge. the chapter begins by summarizing the physics of general circulation and its evolution over the last half-century or so. the next section discusses the current understanding of the role of different mechanisms in the generation of extreme events, before describing how the different types of extreme events are represented in climate models, and how they are analyzed and used in attribution studies.


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